September 25, 2007

The peace accords, signed on Janu-
ary 16, are 122 pages long. They in-
clude agreements about the armed
forces, national civil police, judicial
system, electoral system, economic and
social issues, political participation of
the FMLN and cease-fire arrangements.
The following is a brief summary of
some of the key agreements:
Security Forces
The existing National Guard and
Treasury Police are to be disbanded,
and their members are to be incorpo-
rated into the armed forces. This was to
be completed by March 1.
A new professionally trained Na-
tional Civil Police under civilian con-
trol is to replace the existing national
police. A majority of its members must
not have had any prior involvement
with the government or the FMLN, but
former national police and FMLN guer-
rillas can apply for admission to the
training academy and will be screened
on the basis of their records. During the
transition period, the National Com-
mission for Consolidation of Peace
(COPAZ) will nominate and help ad-
vise a director. The new police force will
be phased in overa two-year period.
Armed Forces
The doctrine of the armed forces
will no longer stress internal security.
Instead, its mission will be restricted to
the defense of territorial integrity from
external military threats, Training of
the armed forces will stress respect for
human rights.
An ad hoc commission of three
prominent Salvadorans will evaluate all
members of the officer corps in terms of
respect for law and human rights, pro-
fessional competence, and aptitude for
serving in a democratic society. Defi-
ciencies in any one of these areas will be
sufficient grounds for dismissal. The ad
hoc commission is to complete its evalu-
ation by August 15.
The government agrees to reduce
the size of the armed forces. The ac-
cords do not specify the final numbers,
but the military will be cut from 54,000
at the time of the signing to approxi-
mately 30,000.
The U.S.-trained Immediate Reac-
tion Infantry Battalions, which have
been accused of committing numer-
ous atrocities, will be disbanded be-
tween July 15 and the end of Novem-
ber, and their current personnel reas-
signed or retired.
The National Intelligence Director-
ate is to be dissolved by June 15, and a
new State Intelligence Organization,
under the direct control of the Presi-
dent, will be established. The Legisla-
tive Assembly can remove the Director
if charges of serious human rights vio-
lations arise.
The FMLN structures are to be
dismantled under U.N. supervision in
the last two weeks of October, and
members will be reintegrated into the
political and institutional life of the
The FMLN will have the right to
form a legal political party, and to set up
its own radio and T.V. facilities. The pro-
cess of legalization was to begin May 1.
Social-Economic Issues
The government must implement
the existing agrarian reform law and
consolidate disparate agrarian legisla-
tion into a new Agarian Code.
The government agrees to respect
de facto land tenancy in conflictive
zones while it seeks to purchase occu-
pied land from absentee owners. It also
agrees to provide expanded agricul-
tural credit to farmers in conflictive
zones. A special commission under
COPAZ will review, on a case-by-case
basis, land conflicts in these zones.
The government agrees to permit
direct external financial and develop-
ment assistance to local communi-
The government will adopt mea-
sures to alleviate the social cost of its
structural adjustment program,
The accords call for the creation of
a Forum for Social-Economic Con-
certacidn to seek consensus on eco-
nomic policies. The forum will be made
up of representatives from govern-
ment, business, labor and consumer
The government will develop a Na-
tional Reconstruction Plan for the con-
flictive zones reflecting input from all
sectors of society. The plan will in volve
infrastructural development as well as
employment, housing, education, and
health programs. The plan is to be car-
ried out in 108 designated municipali-
ties in the conflictive zones, and will
give special attention to the needs of ex-
combatants. With the support of the
U.N. Development Program, the pro-
grams are to be carried out by a combi-
nation of government agencies, private
businesses and non-governmental or-
ganizations.. External funding sources are being sought.
Judicial Reforms
The accords call for the creation of professional training mechanisms and
standards for the judiciary, and for the lppointment of a National Human Rights Ombudspcrson.
Most of the measures are tobe imple- nented during the cease-fire period of line months. There are specific dead- lines for each of the key provisions. Durine theccaw-fire.
armed forces units
Supervision and Verification
COPAZ will oversee the implemen- tation of critical provisions of the ac- cords and will monitor compliance COPAZ will be made up of two repre- sentatives from the government (one 01
them from the military), two from the FMLN, and one each from the six po-
litical parties represented in the Legis- lative Assembly (ARENA, PCN,MAC. the Christian Democrats, the Demo- cratic Convergence and the UDN). The Archbishop and the U.N. human rights monitoringagency ONUSAL will have obsenler status at COPAZ. ONUSAL will monitorcompliance with the cease-
fire provisions and will help train the new police force.

Tags: El Salvador, negotiations, Peace Accords, FMLN, Alfredo Cristiani

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