Documents: US Military Interventions: 1798-1945

September 25, 2007

c1798-1800--Undeclared naval war with France.-Thls contest included land actions, such as that in the Dominican Republic, city of Puerto Plata, where marines captured a French privateer under the guns of the forts. 1801-05--TripolU.-The First Barbary War. including the George Washtngton and Phtila- delphia affairs and the Eaton expedition during which a few marines landed with United States Agent William Eaton to raise a frce against Tripoli n an effort to free the crew of the Philadelphia. Tripol de- clared war but not the United States. 1806-Mexico (Spanish territory).--apt, Z. M. Pike, with a platoon of troops, in- vaded Spanish territory at the headwaters of the Rio Grande deliberately and on orders from Gen. James Wilkinson. He was made prisoner without resistance at a fort he oon- structed n present day Colorado, taken to Mexico, later released after seizure of his pa- pers. There was a political purpose, still a mystery. 1806-10--Gulf of Mexico.-American gun- boats operated fray New Orleans against Spanish and French privateers, such as La- Fitte, off the Misasisippi Delta, chiefly under Capt. John Shaw and Master Commandant David Porter. 1810-West Florida (Spanish territory).- CGov. Claiborne of Louisiana, on orders of the President, occupied with troops territory in dispute east of Mississippi as far as the Pearl River, later the eastern boundary of Louisi- ana. He was authorized to seize as far east as the Perdido River. No armed clash. 1812-Amelia Island and other part of east Florida, then under Spain..-Temporary possession was authorized by President Mad- Ison and by Congress, to prevent occupation by any other power; but possession was ob- tained by Gen. George Matthews in so irregu- lar a manner that his measures were dis- avowed by the President. 1812-15-Great Britain.-War of 1812. Formally declared. 1813-West Florida (Spanish territory).- On authority given by Oongress, General Wilkinson seized Mobile Bay in April with 600 soldiers. A mall Spanish garrison gave way. Thus we advanced into disputed terri- tory to the Perdido River, as projected in 1810. No fighting. 1813-14-Marquesas Islands.-Built a fort on island of Nukahiva to protect three prize ships which had been captured from the British. 1814-Spanish Florida.-Gen. Andrew Jackson took Pensacola and drove out the British with whom the United States was at war. 1814-25--Caribbean.-Engagements be- tween pirates and American ships or squad- rons took place repeatedly especially ashore and offshore about Cuba, Puerto Rico, Santo Domingo, and Yucatan. Three thousand pi- rate attacks on merchantmen were reported between 1815 and 1823. In 1822 Commodore James Biddle employed a squadron of two frigates, four sloops or war, two brigs, four schooners, and two gunboats in the West Indies. 1815-Alglers.-The Second Barbary War, declared by our enemies but not by the United States. Congress authorized an ex- pedition. A large fleet under Decatur at- tacked Algiers and obtained indemnlties. 1815-Trpol.-After securing an agree- ment from Algiers, Decatur demonstrated with his squadron at Tunis and Tripoli, where he secured indemnities for offenses against us during the War of 1812. 1816-Spanish Florida.-United States forces destroyed Nicholls Fort, called also Negro Fort, because it harbored raiders Into United States territory. 1816-18-Spanish Florida-First Seminole War.-The Seminole Indians, whose area was a resort for escaped slaves and border ruf- fians, were attacked by troops under Generals Jackson and Gaines and pursued into north- ern Florida. Spanish posts were attacked and occupied, British -citizens executed. There was no declaration or congressional author- ization but the Executive was sustained. 1817-Amelia Island (Spanlish territory off Florida) .- Under orders of President Monroe, United States forces landed and expelled a group of smugglers, adventurers, and free- booters. 1818-Oregon.-The U.S.S. Ontario, dis- patched from Washington, landed at the Oolumbla River and n August took-posses- onL Britain had conceded sovereignty but Russia and Spain asserted claims to the area. 1820-26-Afrloa.-Naval units raided the slave traffic pursuant to the 1819 act of Con- gress. 1822-Cuba.-United States naval force suppressing piracy landed on the northwest coast of Cuba and burned a pirate station. 1823-Cube..-Brief landings in puruit of pirates occurred Apri 8 near Esoonddo; April 16 near Cayo Blanco; July 11 at Slqupa Bay; July 21 at Cape Cruz; and Ootober 23 at Camrioca. 1824-Cuba.-In October the U.S.S. Pr- poise landed bluejackets near Matanas in pursuit of pirates. This was during the cruise authorized in 1822. 1824-Puerto Rico (Spansh territory) Commodore David Porter with a landing party attacked the town of PaJardo which had sheltered pirates and insulted Ameri- can naval officers. He landed with 200 men in November and forced an apology. 1825-Cuba.-In March cooperating American ad Britdsh forces landed at Sagua La Grande to capture pirates. 1827-Greece.-In October and November landing parties hunted pirates on the is- lands of Argenteire, Mlconil, and Andross. 1831-32-Falkland Islands.-To nvestigate the capture of three American sealing ves- sels and to protect American interests. 1832-Sumatra-February 6 to 9.-To punish natives of the town of Quallah Bat- too for depredations on American shipping. 1833-Argentina-October 1 to November 15.-A force was sent ashore at Buenos Aires to protect the interests of the UniAted States and other countries during an Insurrectilon. 1835-36-Peru-December 10, 1835 to Jan- uary 24, 1836, and August 31 to December 2, 1836.-Marines protected American interests in Callao and Lima during an attempted revolution. 1836-Mexico.-General Gaines occupied Nacogdoches (Tex.), disputed territory, from July to December during the Texan war for independence, under order to cross the imaginaryy boundary line" if an Indian out- break threatened. 1838-39-Sumatra-December 24, 1838, to January 4, 1839-To punish natieves of the towns of Quallah Battoo and Muckie (Muk- Id) for depredations on American shipping. 1840--Fiji Islands-July.-To punish na- tives for attacking American exploring and surveying parties. 1841-Drummond Island, Klngsnill Group.-To avenge the murder of a seaman by the natives. 1841-Samoa-February 24.-To avenge the murder of a seaman on Upolu Island. 1842-Mexico-Commodore T. A. C. Jones in command of a squadron long cruising off California, occupied Monterey, Calif., on October 19, believing war had come. He dis- covered peace, withdrew, and saluted. A simi- lar incident occurred a week later at San Diego. 1843-Africa, November 29 to December 16-Four United States vessels demonstated and landed various parties (one of 200 ma- rines and sailors) to discourage piracy and the slave trade along the Ivory coast, etc., and to punish attacks by the natives on American seamen and shipping. 1844-Mexico.-Prcsldent Tyler deployed our forces to protect Texas against Mexico, pending Senate approval of a treaty of an- nexation. (Later rejected.) He defended his action against a Senate resolution of inquiry. This was a demonstration or preparation. 1846-43--Mexlco, the Mexican War.-Presi- dent Polk's occupation of disputed tenitory precipitated It. War was formally declared. S 695515 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE- June 23, 1969 1849-Smyrna.-In July a naval force gained release of an American seized by Aus- trian officials. 1851-Turkey.-After a massacre of for- eigners (including Americane) at Jafta in January, a demonstration by our Mediter- ranean Squadron was ordered along the Turkish (Levant) ooast. Apparently no shots fired. 1851-Johanna Island (east of Africa), Au- gust.-To exact redress for the unlawful m- prisonment of the captain of an American whaling brig. 1852-53-Argentina-February 3 to 12, 1852: September 17, 1852 to April (?) 1853.- Marines were landed and maintained in Buenos Aires to protect American interests during a revolution. 1853-Nicaragua-March 11 to 1S.-To pro- tect American lives and interests during poli- tical disturbances. 1853-54-Japan.-The "opening of Japan" and the Perry Expedition. 1853-54--Ryukyu and Bonin Islands.- Commodore Perry on three visits before going to Japan and while waiting for a reply from Japan made a naval demonstration, landing :stinese twice, and secured a coaling oonoes- sion from the ruler of Naha on Okinawa. He also demonstrated in the Bonin Islands. All to secure facilities for commerce. 1854-China-April 4 to June 15 or 17.- To protect American interests in and near Shanghai during Chinese Civil strife. 1854-icragua--July 9 to 15.-San Juan del Norte (Greytown) was destroyed to avenge an insult to the American Minister to Nicaragua. 1855-hina-May 19 to 21 (?).-To pro- teot American interests In Shanghai. August 8 to 5 to fight pirate near Hong Kong. 1855-Fiji Islands-September 12 to No- vember 4.-To seek reparations for depreda- tions on Americans. 1855-Uruguay-November 25 to 29 or 30.-United States and European naval forces landed to protect American interests during an attempted revolution in Montevideo. 1856--Panama, Republic of New Grenada- September 19 to 22.-To protect American interests during an insuection. 1856--Chn--Ooober 22 to December 6.- To ptect American interests at Canton dur- ing hostilities between the British and the Chinese; and to avenge an unprovoked as- sault upon an unarmed boat displaying the United States fiag. 1857-Nicaragua-April to May, November to December.--To oppose William Walker's attempt to get control of the country. In May Commander C. H. Davis of the United States Navy, with some marines, received Walker's surrender and protected his men from the retaliation of native allies who had been fighting Walker. In November and De- cember of the same year United States ves- sels Saratoga, Wabash, and Fulton opposed another attempt of William Walker on Nic- aragua. Commodore Hiram Paulding's act of landing marines and compelling the removal of Walker to the United States, was tacitly disavowed by Secretary of State Lewis Cass, and Paulding was forced into retirement. 1858-Uruguay-January 2 to 27.-Forces from 2 United States warships landed to pro- tect American property during a revolution in Montevideo. 1858--Fij Islands-October 6 to 16.-To chastise the natives for the murder of two American citizens. 1858-59-Turkey.-Display of naval force along the Levant at the request of the Secre- tary of State after massacre of Americans at Jaffa and mistreatment elsewhere "to remind the authorities (of Turkey) of the power of the United States." 1859-Paraguay.--Congress authorized a naval squadron to seek redress for an attack on a naval vessel in the Parana River during 1855. Apologies were made after a large dis- play of force. 1859-Mexico -Two hundred United States soldiers crossed the Rio Grande in pursuit of the Mexican bandit Cortna. 1859-China--July 31 to August 2.--or the protecton of American interests In Shanghai. 1860-Angola, Portuguese West Africa- March 1.-To protect American lives and property at Kissembo when the natives be- came troublesome. 1860-C-olombia, Bay of Panama--Septem- her 27 to October 8.-To protect American interests during a revolution. 1863-Japan-July 16.-To redress an in- sult to the American flag-firing on an Ameri- can vessel--at Shimonoseki. 1864-Japan-July 14 to August 3, approx- imately.-To protect the United States Min- ister to Japan when he visited Yedo to negotiate concerning some American claims against Japan, and to make his negotiations easier by impressing the Japanese with Amer- ican power. 1864-Japan-September 4 to 14-Stratts of Shimonoseki-To compel Japan and the Prince of Nagato in particular to permit the Straits to be used by foreign shipping in accordance with treaties already signed. 18658-Pansa-March 9 and 10.-To pro- teot the lives and property of American resi- dents during a revolution. 1866-Mexico.-To protect American resi- dents, General Sedgwick and 100 men in No- vember obtained surrender of Matamoras. After 8 days he was ordered by our Govern- ment to withdraw. His act was repudiated by the President. 1866--Chna-June 20 to July 7.-To pun- ish an assault on the American consul at Newchwang; July 14, for consultation with authorities on shore; August 9, at Shanghai, to help extinguish a serious fire in the city. 1867-Island of Formosa-June IS.-To punish a horde of savages who were supposed to have murdered the crew of a wrecked American vessel. 1868-Japan (Osaka, Hiogo, Nagasaki., Yok- ohama, and Negeta) -Mainly February 4 to 8, April 4 to May 12, June 12 and 13.-To pro- tect American interests during the civil war in Japan over the abolition of the Shogunate and the restoration of the Mikado. 1868-Uruguay-February 7 and 8, 19 to 28.-o protect foreign residents and the customhouse during an insurrection at Montevideo. 1868-Colombia-April 7-at Aspinwall.- To protect passengers and treasure in transit during the absence of local police or troops on the occasion of the death of the President of Colombia. 1870-Mexico. June 17 and 18.-To destroy the pirate ship Forward, which had been run aground about 40 miles up the Rio Tecapan. 1870-Hawaiian Islands---September 21.- To place the American flag at half mast upon the death of Queen Kalama, when the Ameri- can consul at Honolulu would not assume responsibility for so doing. 1871-Korea-June 10 to 12.-To punish natives for depredations on Americans, par- ticularly for murdering the crew of the Gen- eral Sherman and burning the schooner, and for later firing on other American small boats taking soundings up the Salee River. 1873--Colombia (Bay of Panama)-May 7 to 22,.September 23 to October 9.-To pro- tect American interests during hostilities over possession of the government of the State of Panama. 1873-Mexico.-United States troops crossed the Mexican border repeatedly in pursuit of cattle and other thieves. There were some reciprocal pursuits by Mexican troops into our border territory. The cases were only technically invasions. if that, al- though Mexico protested constantly. Not- able cases were at Remolina in May 1873 and at Las Cuevas in 1875. Washington orders often supported these excursions. Agreements between Mexico and the United States, the first in 1882, finally legitimized such raids. They continued intermittently, with minor disputes, until 1896. 1874-Hawaiian Islands-February 12 to 20.-To preserve order and protect American lives and interests during the inauguration of a new king. 1876--Mexico-May 18.-To police the town of Matamoros temporarily while it was without other government. 1882-Egypt--July 14 to 18.-To protect American interests during warfare between British and Egyptians and looting of the city of Alexandria by Arabs. 1885-Panama (Colon)-January 18 and 19.-To guard the valuables in transit over the Panama Railroad, and the safes and vaults of the company during revolutionary activity. In March, April, and May in the cities of Colon and Panama, to reestablish freedom of transit during revolutionary activity. 1888-Korea-June.-To protect American residents in Seoul during unsettled political conditions, when an outbreak of the popu- lace was expected. 1888-89-Saoa-November 14, 1888, to March 20, 1889.-To protect American citl- zens and the consulate during a native civil war. 1888-Halti-December 20.-To persuade the Haitian Government to give up an Amer- ican steamer which had been seized on the charge of breach of blockade. 1889-Hawaiian Islands-July 30 and 31.- To protect American Interests at Honolulu during a revolution. 1890-Argentin.a.-A naval party landed to protect our consulate and legation in Buenos Aires. 1891-Halti.-To protect American lives and property on Navassa Island when Negro laborers got out of control. 1891-Bering Sea-July 2 to October 5.- To stop seal poaching. 1891-Chle-August 28 to 30.-To protect the American consulate and the women and children who had taken refuge in it during a revolution in Valparaiso. 1893-Hawaii-January 16 to April 1.- Ostensibly to protect American lives and property; actually to promote a provisional government under Sanford B. Dole. This ac- tion was disavowed by the United States. 1894-Brazil-January.-To protect Ameri- can commerce and shipping at Rio de Janeiro during a Brazilian civil war. No landing was attempted but there was a display of naval force. 1894-Nicaragua-July 6 to August 7.-To protect American interests at Bluefields fol- lowing a revolution. 1894-96-Korea-July 24, 1894 to April 3. 1896.-To protect American lives and inter- ests at Seoul during and following the Sino- Japanese War. A guard of marines was kept at the American legation most of the time until April 1896. 1894-95-China-Marins were stationed at Tientsin and penetrated to Peking for protection purposes during the Sino-Japa- nese War. 1894-95-China-Naval vessel beached and used as a fort at Newchwang for protection of American nationals. 1895-Colombia-March 8 to 9.-To pro- tect American interests during an attack on the town of Bocas del Toro by a bandit chieftain. 1896-Nicaragua-May 2 to 4.-To protect American interests in Corinto during politi- cal unrest. 1898-Nicaragua-February 7 and 8.-To protect American lives and property at San Juan del Sur. 1898-Spain.-The Spanish-American War. Fully declared. 1898-99-China-November 5, 1898, to March 15, 1899.-To provide a guard for the legation at Peking and the consulate at S 6956June 23, 1969 16 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE S 6957 Tientsin during contest between the Do- wager Empress and her son. 1899-Nlcaragua.-To protect American n- terests at San Juan del Norte, February 22 to March 6, and at Blueflelds a few weeks later In connection with the insurrection of Gen. Juan P. Reyes. 1899-Samoa-March 13 to May 15.-To protect American interests and to take pert in a bloody contention over the succession to the throne. 1899-1901-Philippine Islands,-To protect American interests following the war with Spain, and to conquer the Islands by defeat- ing the Flipinoe n their war for Inde- pendence. 1900hi--hna-May 24 to September 28.- To protect foreign lives during the Boxer rising, particularly at Peking. For many years after this experience a permanent lega- tion guard was maintained in Peking, and was strengthened at times as trouble threat- ened. It was still there in 1934. 1901-olombia (State of Panama) -No- vember 20 to December 4.-To protect Amer- ican property on the Isthmus and to keep transit lines open during serious revolu- tionary disturbances. 1902-Colombia-April 18 to 23.-To pro- tect American lives and property at Bocas del Tor during a civil war. 1902- Colonbla (State of Panama)ep tember 17 to November 18.-To place armnne guards on all trains crossing the Isthmus and to keep the railroad line open. 1903-Honduras--March 23 to 30 or 31.- To protect the American consulate and the steamship wharf at Puerto Cortez during a peod of revolutionary activity. 1903-Dominican tepublio-Maroh 30 to April 21.-To protect American Interests in the city of Santo Domingo during a revolu- tionary outbreak 1903-Syria--September 7 to 12.-To pro- teet the American consulate in Beirut when a local Moslem uprising was feared. 1903-14-Panama.-To protect American interest, and lives during and following the revolution for independence from Colombia over construction of the thmlan Canal. With brief Intermisions, United State. Ma- rines were stationed on the Isitmu from November 4. 1903, to January 21, 1914, to guard American Interests. 1904-Dominican Republo-January 2 to February 11.-To protect American interests In Puerto Plato and Sceua and Santo Do- mingo Cty during revolutionary fighting. 1904---Kaa--Jnuary 5, 1904 to No- vember 1L 1905.-To guard the American Legatlon in Seoul. 1904-Tangier, Morocco.-"We want either Perdicarls alive or Raisull dead." Demon- strton by a squadron to force release of a kidnapped American. Marine guard landed to protect consul general. 190-Pannam--November 17 to 24.-To protect American live. and property at Anoon at the time of a threatened Insur- rection 190405--Korea-Marine guard sent to Seoul for protection during Russo-Japanese War. 1906-09-CubaSeptember 1906 to Jan- uary 23, 1909-Intervention to restore or- der, protect foreigners, and establish a stable government after serious revolutionary ao- tivity. 1907-Honduras-March 18 to June 8.- To protect American Interests during a war between Honduras and Nicaragua; troops were stationed for a few days or weeks In Trujillo, Ceiba, Puerto Cortez, San Pedro, Laguna, and Choloma. 1910-Nicaragua-February 22.-DurIng a civil var, to get Information of conditions at Corinto; May 19, to September 4, to protect Ameican Interests at Bluefelds. 1911-Hondura-January 26 and some weeks therafter.-To protect American live and nterests during a civil war n HIon- auras. 1911-China.-Approaching stages of the nationalist revolution An ensign and 10 men in October tried to enter Wuchang to rescue missionaries but retired on being warned away. A small landing force guarded American private property and consulate at Hankow In October. A marine guard was established in Novem- ber over the cable stations at Shanghai. Landing forces were sent for protection to Nanking, Chinklang, Taku and elsewhere. 1912-Hondurasmall force landed to prevent seizure by the Government of an American-owned railroad at Puerto Oorte. Forces withdrawn after the United States disapproved the action. 1912-Panama.-Troops, on request of both political parties, supervised elections outside the Canal Zone. 1912-Cuba-June 5 to August 5.-To pro- tect American interests In the Province of Oriente, and Habana. 1912-China-August 24 to 2, on Ken- tucky Island, and August 28 to 30 at Camp Nicholson.-To protect Americans and American interests during revolutionary ac- tivity. 1912-Turkey-November 18 to December 3.-To guard the American legation at Con- stantinople during a Balkan War. 1912-26-Ncaragua-August to November 1912.-To protect American nterests during an attempted revolution A small force serv- ing as a legation guard and as a promoter of peace and governmental stability, remained until August 5, 1925. 1912-41--China.-The disorders which began with the Kuomintang rebellion in 1912, which were redirected by the invasion of China by Japan and finally ended by war between Japan and the United States In 1941, led to demonstrations and landing par- ties for protection in China continuously and at many points from 1912 on to 1941. The guard at Peking and along the route to the sea was maintained Amtl 1941. In 1927, the United States had 5,670 troops ashore in China and 44 naval vessels In ts waters. In 1933 we had 3,027 armed men ashore. All this protective action Min gen- eral terms based on treaties with China ranging from 1858 to 1901.L 1913-Mexico--September to 7.-A few marine landed at Claris Ester to aid in evacuating American cities and others from the Yaqui Valley, made dangerous for foreigners by civil strife. 1914-Haiti--January 29 to ebruary 9, February 20 to 21, October 19.-To protect American nationals n a time of dangerous unrest. 1914-Domintcan RepublicJune and July.-Durlng a revolutionary movement, United States naval forces by gunfire stopped the bombardment of Puerto Plata, and by threat of force maintained Santo Domingo City as a neutral zone. 1914-17-MexicO.-The undeclared Mexican- American hostilities following the Dolphin affair and Villa's raids ncluded capture of Vera Cruz and later Pershing's expedition into northern Mexico. 19154-HatI--July 28, 19156, to August 15, 1934.-To maintain order during a pe- riod of chronic and threatened insurrection 1916--24-Dominican Republic-May 1918 to September 1924.-To maintain order dur- ing a period of chronic and threatened in- surrection. 1917-18-World War I. Fully declared. 1917-33Cuba.-To protect American in- teresta during an insurrection and subse- quent unsettled conditions. Most of the United States armed forces left Cuba by Au- gust 1019, but two companies remained at Camaguey until February 1922. 1918-19-Mexico.-After withdrawal of the Pershing expedition our troops entered Mex- ico in pursuit of bandits at least three times in 1918 and kdx in 1919. In August 1918 American and Mexican troops fought at Nogales. 1918-2-Pan na.-Por police duty ac- cording to treaty stipulations, at Chiriqul, during election disturbances and subsequent unrest. 1918-20-oviet Russala.-Marlnes were landed at and near Vladivostok in June and July to protect the Amerlcan consulate and other points in the fighting between the Bolshevikl troops and the Czech Army which had traversed Siberla from the western front. A joint proclamation of emergency govern- ment and neutrality was issued by the Amer- ican, Japanese, British, French, and Czech commanders in July and our party remained until late August. In August the project expanded. Then 7,000 men were landed n Vladivostok and remained until January 1920, as part of an allied occupational force. In September 1918, 5,000 American troops joined the allied Intervention force at Arch- angel, suffered 500 casualties and remained until June 1919. A handful of marines took part earlier in a British landing on the Murman coast (near Norway) but only incidentally. All these operations were to offset effects of the Bolsheviki revolution in Russia and were partly supported by Czarist or Kerensky elements. No war was declared. Bolshevlki elements participated at times with n but Soviet Russia still claims damages. 1919-onduras-September 8 to 12.-A landing force was sent ashore to maintain order in a neutral zone during an attempted revolution. 1920-22--usss (Silberia) February 16, 1920, to November 19, 1922.-A marine guard to protect the United States radio station and property on Russian Island, Bay of Vladivostok. 1920-China-March 14.-A landing force was sent ashore for a few hours to protect lives during a disturbance at Kiukang. 1920-Guatemala-April 9 to 27.-To pro- tect the American Legation and other Ameri- can interests, such as the cable station, dur- ing a period of fighting between Unionists and the Government of Guatemala. 1921 - Panama-Costa Rica. - American naval squadrons demonstrated in April on both sides of the Isthmus to prevent war between the two countries over a boundary dispute. 1922-Turkey-September and October.- A landing force was sent ashore with consent of both Greek and Turkish authorities to pro- tect American lives and property when the Turkish Nationalists entered Smyrna. 1924-Honduras-February 28 to March s1, September 10 to 15.-To protect Ameri- can lives and Interests during election hostil- ities. 1924-Chna-September.-Marlnes were landed to protect Americans and other for- eigners In Shanghai during Chinese factional hostilities. 1925-China-January 15 to August 29.- Fighting of. Chlnese factions accompanied by riots and demonstrations in Shanghal neces- sitated landing American forces to protect lives and property In the International Settlement. 1925--Honduras--April 19 to 21.-To pro- teot foreigners at La Celba during a polti- catlupheaval. 1925-Panama--October 12 to 23.-Strkes and rent riots led to the landing of about 800 American troops to keep order and protect American interests. 1926-33-Nicaragua-May 7 to June 5, 1926; August 27, 1928, to January 3, 1933.- The coup d'etat of General Chamorro aroused revolutionary activities leading to the land- ing of American marines to protect the Inter- ests of the United States. United States17 forces came and went, but seem not to have left the country entirely until January 8, 1938. Their work included activity against the outlaw leader Sandino in 1928. 192---China-August and September.- The Nationalist attack on Hwanow necessi- tated the landing of American naval forces to protect American citizens. A small guard was maintained at the consulate general even after September 16, when the rest of the forces were withdrawn. Likewise, when Nationalist forces captured Riuklang, naval forces were landed for the protection of for- eligners November 4 to 6. 1927-China.-February.-Fighting at Shanghai caused American naval forces and marines to be increased there. In March a naval guard was stationed at the American consulate at Nanking after Nationalist forces captured. the city. American and British destroyers later used shell re to protect Americans and other foreigners. "Following this incident additional forces of marines and naval vessels were ordered to China and stationed in the vicinity of Shanghai and Tientsin."', 1933-Cuba.-During a revolution against President Oerardo Machado naval forces demonstrated but no landing was made. 1940--Newfoundland, Bermuda, St Lucia, Bahamas. Jamaica, Antigua, Trinidad, and British Guiana.-Troops were sent to guard air and naval bases obtained by negotiation with Great Britain. These were sometimes called lend-lease bases. 1941--Greenand-Taken under protec- tion of the United States in April. 1941-Netherlands (Dutch Guiana) .- In November the President ordered American troops to occupy Dutch Guiana but by agree- ment with the Netherlands government in exile. BraszU cooperated to protect alumi- num ore supply from the bauxite mines in Surinam. 1941-I0eland.-Taken under the protec- tion of the United States, with consent of its Government, for strategic reasons. 1941-Germany.--Sometlme in the spring the President ordered the Navy to patrol Ship lanes to Europe. By July ourt warships were convoying and by September were attacking Oerman submarines. There was no author- lzatlon of Congress or declaration of war. In November the Neutrality Act was partly re- pealed to protect military aid to Britain, Russia etc. 1941- eGrmany, Italy, Japan, tc.- World War IX. Fully declared. 1942-Labrador.-Army-Navy air bases es- tablished.

Tags: US military interventions, congressional record

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