Sept. 19-22, 1856: "To protect U.S. interests during an insurrection."* Sept. 27-Oct.8, 1865: "To protect U.S. interests during a revolution." April 1868: "To protect the property and lives of U.S. residents during a revolution." May 7-22 and Sept.23-Oct.9, 1873: "To protect U.S. interests during hostilities caused by the inauguration of the government of Panama." January 18-19, 1885: "To protect objects of value being moved by Panama's railroad, as well as the Company's safes and vaults during revolutionary activity." March and April 1885: "To re-establish free transit during revolutionary activity."' March 8-9, 1895: "To protect U.S. interests during an attack on the town of Bocas del Toro by a bandit leader." Nov.20-Dec.4, 1901: "To protect U.S. property in the Isthmus and maintain transit lines open during serious revolutionary distur- bances." April 16-23, 1902: "To protect U.S. lives and property in Bocas del Toro during a civil war." Sept. 17-Nov.18, 1902: "To place armed guards in all crossing trains and maintain the railway open." 1903-1914: "To protect U.S. interests and lives during and fol- lowing the revolution of independence from Colom- bia, due to the construction of the canal in the Isthmus. With short interruptions, the Marines were stationed in the Isthmus from Nov. 4, 1903 until Jan. 21, 1914 to safeguard U.S. interests." Nov. 17-24, 1904: "To protect U.S. lives and property in Anc6n, at the time of insurrectionary threat." 1912: "At the request of the political parties, U.S. troops supervised elections outside the Canal Zone." 1918-1920: "For police duties, according to treaty stipulations, during electoral disturbances and subsequent agita- tion." April, 1921: "A U.S. Navy squadron held maneuvers on both sides of the Isthmus to prevent war between the two countries [Panama and Costa Rica] over a border dispute." Oct. 12-23, 1925: "Strikes and riots by tenants obliged some 600 U.S. soldiers to disembark to maintain order and protect U.S. interests." Jan. 9, 1964: To stop Panamanian students who sought to raise the Panamanian flag in the Canal Zone, U.S. soldiers killed 21 and wounded more than 500. March and April 1988: To overthrow the government, the United States im- posed devastating economic sanctions. "* Quotes extracted from a longer list of U.S. interventions in the hemisphere presented in Senate testimony by Secre- tary of State Dean Rusk in 1962 to justify the option of direct intervention in Cuba. Source: Este Pais #2, July 1986, CEASPA, Panama.
Tags: Panama, US interventions